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Apr. Aber beim Handball-Paar Ulrika Agren (27) & Henrik Toft Hansen (28) herrscht Gut möglich, dass Familienmensch Henrik (vier Geschwister). Okt. Es gibt kaum einen Moment, in dem Henrik Toft Hansen kein Grinsen im Gesicht hat. Auch die anderen Geschwister werfen gern mit Bällen. 6. März Henrik Toft Hansen an der verschneiten Hafenspitze in Flensburg. sagt der Jährige, dessen vier Geschwister ebenfalls Handball spielen.

Acatech, stylized as acatech , established as the German Academy of Science and Engineering Deutsche Akademie der Technikwissenschaften on 1 January , represents the interests of German technical sciences independently, in self-determination and guided by the common good, at home and abroad.

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The Adler Planetarium is a public museum dedicated to the study of astronomy and astrophysics. Adolf Friedrich, Graf von Schack 2 August April was a German poet, historian of literature and art collector.

Adolf Bernhard Philipp Reinach 23 December — 16 November was a German philosopher, phenomenologist from the Munich phenomenology school and law theorist.

Adolf Uzarski April 14, — July 14, was a German writer, artist, and illustrator associated with the New Objectivity movement. Adolf von Hildebrand 6 October — 18 January was a German sculptor.

Adolf Wilbrandt 24 August June was a German novelist and dramatist. Adorf is a small town and municipality in the Vogtlandkreis to the south-west of the Free State of Saxony, Germany.

Adriaen Brouwer Oudenaarde, c. Adriano Leite Ribeiro born February 17, , commonly known as simply Adriano, is a Brazilian professional footballer who last played for Miami United.

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AGO Flugzeugwerke was a German aircraft manufacturing company from until Agostino Steffani 25 July February was an Italian ecclesiastic, diplomat and composer.

The Ahnenerbe ancestral heritage was a think tank that operated in Nazi Germany between and Aichach is a town in Germany, located in the Bundesland of Bavaria and situated just northeast of Augsburg.

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Aki Uolevi Parviainen born 26 October is a retired Finnish track and field athlete who competed in the javelin throw.

Ala Littoria was the Italian national airline that operated during the fascist regime in the s and s. Alan Minter born 17 August is a British former professional boxer who competed from to Albaching locally also known as "Oibich" is a municipality in the district of Rosenheim in Bavaria in Germany.

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Anastacia Lyn Newkirk born September 17, is an American singer-songwriter, producer and former dancer. The discography of Anastacia, an American singer-songwriter, consists of seven studio albums, twenty two singles, twenty three music videos, and two DVDs.

Anastasius Nordenholz - is the author of Scientologie, Wissenschaft von der Beschaffenheit und der Tauglichkeit des Wissens Scientology, Science of the Constitution and Usefulness of Knowledge written in Anastasiya Alexandrovna Kapachinskaya Анастасия Александровна Капачинская; born November 20, is a sprint athlete.

Baconsky June 16, — March 4, , also known as A. Bakonsky, Baconschi or Baconski, was a Romanian modernist poet, essayist, translator, novelist, publisher, literary and art critic.

Munich and Anatol E. Munich and And Thou Shalt Trust Andreas "Anderl" Heckmair October 12, — February 1, was a German mountain climber and guide who led the first successful ascent of the Eiger north face in July Andreas "Andi" Deris born 18 August is a German singer and songwriter, best known as the lead vocalist of power metal band Helloween, and co-founder and former lead singer of German melodic metal band Pink Cream Andrea Bocelli, born 22 September is an Italian singer, songwriter, and record producer.

Andrea Gruber born is an American dramatic soprano particularly admired for her interpretations of the works of Puccini, Verdi, and Wagner.

Andreas "Andy" Brehme born 9 November is a German football coach and former football defender. Andreas Keller born 1 October in West Berlin is a former field hockey player from West Germany, who competed at three Summer Olympics for his native country.

Andreas Klier born 15 January is a retired German professional road racing cyclist. Andreas Ottl born 1 March in Munich, Bavaria is a German footballer who plays as a defensive midfielder.

Andreas Seppi born 21 February is an Italian professional tennis player from the South Tyrol region in northern Italy, who turned professional in Andreas Vogler born January 15, in Basel is a Swiss architect, designer and artist.

Andrei Pavel born 27 January is a Romanian tennis coach and former professional tennis player. Andrey Nikolaevich Kolmogorov a, 25 April — 20 October was a 20th-century Soviet mathematician who made significant contributions to the mathematics of probability theory, topology, intuitionistic logic, turbulence, classical mechanics, algorithmic information theory and computational complexity.

Angelika Bachmann born 16 May is a former professional German tennis player. Angelika Bahmann born 1 April in Plauen is a former East German slalom canoeist and trainer who competed in the s.

Angelo Quaglio the younger — was a German stage designer of Italian descent. Anglicisation or anglicization, see English spelling differences , occasionally anglification, anglifying, englishing, refers to modifications made to foreign words, names and phrases to make them easier to spell, pronounce, or understand in English.

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Niels Christian Guldager Schmith. Peter Axel Johannes Schmith. Baptism, 19 Jun Blev senere vognmand i Haderslev.

Efter blev han ansat ved de jyske statsbaner og gjorde tjeneste forskellige steder i Jylland. Muligvis ellers Magdalena eller endnu andet.

Der er dog ikke stor afvigelse. Blev muligvis gift mens hun var bagerjomfru. Jeg kan dog ikke huske min kilde til denne dato.

Svend Aage Nielsen Publ: Dokumentet er hentet fra hjemmesiden http: De to sogne er dog nabosogne: Fremstillet i Snebjerg kirke den Snejbjerg ligger lidt uden for Herning, Danmark.

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Pakhuset blev fredet , og kendes nu under navnet "Clausens Pakhus". Der er nu bibliotek. Clausen var en meget stor skatteyder, se skattelisten i Nysted Raadstuearkiv.

Han var eligeret borger i Nysted, d. Kirkebogen for Nysted Sogn Publ: I fik han tildelt St. Helena-medaljen for sin deltagelse i felttoget.

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Kirsten Bak Kristensen Publ: I lod han P. Gift med Jens Larsen uden kongelig bevilling. Hvor datoen den Kirsten Gammel Kjesten Jensdatter. Udgivet i "Historisk Aarbog fra Randers Amt ".

Bugge Vegger, afsluttet den Ved ikke om det er rigtigt eller en sammenblanding af datoer. Tilsyneladende kaldet for Hanne.

Mary Ellen Rogers Publ: Udprintet af Mary Ellen Rogers den 9. Sendt til mig med posten derefter. Mary Ellen Rogers ringbind vides andre steder at indeholde fejl!

Detter er vist mere sikkert. Her i Sognet - Sogn: Hans kone - Civilstand: Snejbjerg bye, en gaard - Trossamfund: Peder Thygesen Vium - Alder: Et huus - Trossamfund: Resten af teksten er utydelig.

Efter sigende af engelsk herkomst. Fornavnet er muligvis Anna i stedet for Anne. Student i Kristiania Oslo , cand.

Registreret i Oeder i Kielbyemagle Bye - Sogn: Hun ligger for det meste til Sengs. Kirkebogen for Svenstrup Sogn Publ: Jeg ved ikke om navnene "An" og "Margreth" er forkortede.

Bonde og Gaardbeboer - Sogn: Sveistrup Bye - Nr. Salgssummen er rbd. Husmand i Snejbjerg By fra omkring til omkring Hun var jordemoder i Vester Nykirke Sogn.

Student i Ribe , cand. Fabricius, senere i Utrecht. Han vendte tilbage og blev s. Lars Terpager kaldes i en samtidig kilde "en stor elsker af Danske Antiqviteter og Oldsager".

Lars Terpager interesserede sig levende for Det kgl. Om Lars Terpager hedder det i P. Marts , i stedet for For at skaffe kapital solgte han den Prisen var Rigsdaler.

En skilsmisse i retslig forstand blev det aldrig til. Hjemmeside - Jan Berrig Nielsen Auth: Jan Berrig Nielsen Publ: Muligvis han ikke brugte mellemnavnet Pedersen?

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Hun elskede de gamle Viser, var et poetisk Gemyt og kunde, naar hun sang, gaa helt op i det. Stemmen var endnu helt kraftig, og hun kunde meget godt fastholde Tonen.

Jeg sad der jo mange Aftener i Februar og Marts, og hendes gamle Minder levede op i hende igjen. Sidsel var ikke missionsvenlig og kom ikke til disse Mennesker.

Heller ikke gav hun sig af med at snakke om Folk. Jydske Folkeminder bind I og XI. Artikel i Hardsyssels Aarbog IX B , side Maren Christensdatter Hesselbjerg Mand: Birthe Andersdatter Indsidder i Fonvad i Snejbjerg Tage Kysters bidrag til L.

Instrumentist i Koldinghus Amt. Peder Terpager blev student fra Ribe

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In the nine grade schools one- haif of the pupils leave as soon as this exemption has been secured. With respect to other privileges the gymnasium leads by enabling its graduates at once to enter upon the special preparation for any profession or any branch of the public service.

The real-gym- nasium confers the same privileges except that its graduates cannot, without making up the part of the gymnasial course which they have not had, prepare themselves at the universities for theology, Jaw, medicine, or cameriilistics.

The superior real-school confers only about half as many important privileges as the schools just men- tioned, though it gives the same as the real gymnasium except that it does not like the latter enable its gradu- ates to study modern languages, dentistry, veterinary surgery, or pharmacy at the universities or other pro- fessional schools, and excludes from a few careers in 1 r 8 INTRODUCTION the army and navy unless the applicant passes a special examinatioti on the missing subjects.

Ill The local applicability of a book on school hygiene varies with its character. If there were not an essential similar- ity in the conditions of mental activity and the aims and means of education among civilized nations, it would of course be impossible to write a book that would be directly applicable everywhere.

Aa it is, perhaps the most important thing about the local back- ground for a treatise on the principles of school hygiene is that this shall have been sufficiently varied and es- tensive and shall have been adequately investigated.

Those who have to buy heating apparatus or school furniture will of course need to know the local con- ditions and facilities and must therefore supplement this book by the examination of equipments or cata- logues from supply companies.

This would doubtless in any case be necessary, unless a very special report had been made ; and perhaps all we can ask from a general treatise is that it shall so present its princi- ples that our judgment may not err in our work.

The history of school hygiene affords in this respect an interesting parallel to the history of the same movement in Germany as given in chapter I.

Here as there, we find first of all a recog- nition of the importance of health and strength and an advocacy of physical training to secure it,— notably so by Frantclin and Jefferson in the latter half of the eighteenth century.

While there is thus everywhere an essential similar- ity in the principles and perhaps in the development of the science, nevertheless, there are minor variations due to differences in climate, race, and school pro- grammes.

Thus, Germany, which lies approximately between the 47th and 55th parallels, is as a whole in a higher latitude than the United States, which is be- tween the 25th and 49th, if we omit the outlying pos- sessions; and it has a correspondingly lower tempera- ture in summer and shorter days in winter.

Its winter temperature,, however, is higher than we should espect from the latitude, being about the same as that of the middle section of the United States east and west.

This is chiefly to be explained by the general prevalence there at this season of south-west- erly winds. On the Atlantic coast of North America, the corresponding winds are from the north-west, and in the central parts from the south-west or west; while in summer in all sections.

However, on this point authorities differ, and perhaps the most im- portant thing ia to recognize the advantages and disad- vantages of the different orientations and in the equip- ment of room to make due allowance for them.

With respect to school programmes, an investigation in the high schools of some cities in Indiana showed that the pupils spent about 33 hours per week in school work, which is not much more than half the time spent in the corresponding grades of the Swedish Bchoola studied by Key, and from 15 to 20 hours leas than ia recommended by him and other European authorities as an allowable maximum.

The pres- sure is, however, far from, uniform in different sectiona of the country ; and while there are schools that rival the European in this repect there are doubtlesss others in which much more work might be done without detriment to health.

Whether or not climate, hered- ity, and family training make the recommendations of the European experts for the maximum amount of work per week too high for this country, needs further investigation.

In concluaion the translators take pleasure in ac- knowledging their indebtedness to Dr. Eotelmann for most kindly and efficient assistance and to Mr.

Uardeen for a number of additions to the bibliography and many valuable suggestions. BltlMOl, M w 11 aa tbe h for a: Blackboards ; easels ; map-holders ;- crayon and erasers 16S.

How young should pupils be admitted ; home work ; music lessons ; im- proved methods ; examinations ; cephalic congestions ; school headaches ; nosebleed ; over- stimulated nerves Outdoor sports ; manual training ; sleep Mental diseases ; suicide ; epilepsy ; St.

Correct articulation ; stutter- ing Smith-Lunge air-tester 7G 6. Writing claaa in forward poaition School desk of Elsaesser of Schonau at Heidel- berg Plus — zero — minus distance Pupil with a plus distance seat The " Columbus " school desk The same, arranged for standing Blackboard with roller frame Easel for black-board The same used as a map-holder Map-holder by Lickroth — closed The same, open Eecording apparatus for the Mosso ergograph.

Fatigue curve, obtained with the Mosso ergo- graph Boy with adenoid vegetation before the oper- ation The same boy, after the operation These consisted at first of an advocacy of physical exercise.

I am there- fore Tery fond of these two exercises and amusements , music, and tilting, together with fencing, wrestling, and similar games; the first of which drives sorrow and melancholy from the heart, and the second de- velops the different parts of the body and keeps it in health.

The real purpose is, moreover, to keep people from going into drinking, lewdness, gambling, and dice-playing, as they do now at the courts and in the cities, where one can hear nothing but: This is what happens when these fine games and knightly sports are neglected.

Completa editio prima curantibus Melchiore Schulero et Jo. Wrestling is, however, to be indulged in sparingly, since it often becomes a serious matter.

He believes that swimming is an exercise of small utility, " though it may be very pleasant at times to float in the water aud act lite a fish. He wishes that all boys and young men.

Joachim Camerariua , the friend of Melanehthon, not only advises in his " Maxims for Boys " that they substitute ball-playing, running and jumping, boxing and wresthng, for the disreptutable game of dice; but in his " Dialogus de Gymnasiia " he points to the gymnastics of the ancients as a model.

Humanists, like Sadolet, brought the gymnas- tics as well as other features of classical antiquity again within the circle of common interest.

Camerarius praises the Greek games particularly in comparison with the rough [and [excessive sports of our German. The teachers of the institution formed an association that year and contri- buted enough of their meagre salaries to found a gar- den which remained in existence for two and a half centuries.

On the surrounding wall is a stone tablet on which was chiselled the names of ten teachers and the rector, Caesar, together with a Latin poem com- posed by him, in which we find among other things: In the largo city school of Wismar founded in , the pupils were for instance not allowed to go into the yard during recess; and they must not leave their seats without permission.

The Jesuits have rendered particularly eminent ser- vice in the field of school hygiene. As is well-known, they were enterprising teachers, and founded not only I schools for their own order, but also academies in , which any young person might receive lodging, care, and instruction.

In the outline of their methods known aa " Ratio et imitatio studioram societatis Jesu ", which was issued for these institutions in by the general of the Jesuits, Claudio Aquaviva, the number of daily recita- tion periods as well as the amount of work to be done by the pupils will be found to have been re- stricted in a very reasonable way.

The schools and boarding houses of the Jesuits were, as a rule, hygi- enically well arranged; and the physical development of the boys was furthermore promoted by good board, daily walks, games, and long vacations.

The respiratory pro- ducts of the pupils, which, he says, naturally rise to the ceiling, were there to he withdrawn by means of ventilators in the shape of movable windows.

The room was lighted from two sides. It was heated by a large tile stove, supplied with fuel from a special store room. Under the table were shelves for tablets and books.

Next to the room was a hall, occasionally used for exhibitions. Zeitsclirift fiir Scbulgesundheitspflege von "j. Fiirtenbach saya of tliia matter: In fact, some energetic teachers have even undertaken military constructions.

He advised parents to give their chil- dren a phyaical culture free from all " semblance of apishness and aeininity", and emphaaized strengthen- ing and training the limbs as an essential part of Bchoo!

Thus he constantly reminded hia teachers of the saying, " a sound mind in a sound body;" while Trotzendorf, as perpetual dictator, had given his pupils at Goldberg the law: Among tbe things mentioned as " unwholesome and injurious " we find: Koldewey, Braunschweigische Schulorduungen von den altesten Zeiten bis zum Jahre The work of Basedow in promoting the physical training of the yonng was especially important.

In his " Book of Methods for Fathers, Mothers, and Peoples" he gives parents still more decided advice; " Wlien the limbs of your children have the necessary strength and flexibility, accustom them in a safe way to SQch movements as may be useful and which are dangerous only when they are done without training.

The principle enunciated in the proclamation Inade in , entitled: Running and jumping is what they like ; and nothing is more unbearable than sitting still.

What can we do in our restricted circumstances to keep them favorably disposed toward the school? Nothing but give the children — a flock of birds without wings — as much physical exercise as the class work will permit.

Goethe was by no means opposed to the gymnastics introduced by Gnta Mutha, Jahn, and others, though he regretted that politioB had become mixed up with the matter.

I want to see the gymnastic halls re-established, be- cause our young people need them; especially so the students, who in their varied fields of activity lack the physical basis and therefore the necessary ability as well.

They show no signs of sound aenaes, or of pleasure in senauous beauty; the sentiments and de- lights of youth are irretrievably lost, for if a, person a not young at twenty, how can he be at forty?

In the second volume of his work: In the first section, he treats of the injuries result- ing from burdening the youthful powers of mind and body too early and too severely.

He urges that boys under eight shoula not be allowed to enter a Latin school, and then only if they are especially talented.

Lessons must not begin too early in the morning; they should not last over five hours, and should be discon- tinued in extremely hot weather.

The desks and seats, he thinks, deserve special consideration. They must correspond to the aize of the pupil, and have comfortable and not too perpen- dicular backs, if deformities of the spine are to be avoided.

The author also discusses school punish- ments, home tasks, vacations, and the isolation of auch pupils as suffer f. The last section is devoted to the " re-establishment and value of gymnastics in public education ".

Here he recommends walks, excursions, tramps, and jour- neys, as veil as different exercises and sports such aa playing ball, climbing trees, walking on atilta, racing, ihrowing, danting, fencing, riding, swimming, skating, and bowling.

In order that pupils may be exposed to the least possible danger, he demands the establish- ment of public drill-grounds, and the employment of a special drill master.

He also enumerates a long list of precautions to be observed in the different exercises and games. While the work of Prank diacusaes school hygiene in general, that of the medical councillor, C.

Lorinser, Znm Schutz der Geaundheit in den Schulen. The essential energy of lite is lower; and in the same degree aa the senses have become more mobile and the impulses more impetuous, body and mind have lost in firmness and resistance.

The firat con- fuses and dulls the mind; the second retards the natural development of the body; and the third pre- venta recuperation from these effects outside of school.

He adheres rather to the opinion of J. Even though it occasionally missed the mark, it was nevertheless the alarm gun which aroused slumbering minds to action.

While it was partly rejected by the pedagogues Gotthold, Miitzell, Heinsius, and Kopke, it received the general approval of the physician Foriep.

He sums up his opinion of the matter by saying that the conseqiiences of overpressure can be observed among the pupils; and the cause is to be found in the haste of pupils, teachers, and parents ; and also in the increased demands by the present system of ex- aminations.

Important aid was rendered by the fact that King Frederic William III took notice of the work of Lorin- ser, and in a letter to v, Aitenstein, the Cultus-minie- ter, espressed his sympathy with the movement.

After that, means for removing the evils in question began to be considered; and on June 6, , appeared the famous cabinet order by Frederick WiUiam, IV.

With the exception of the short period of quiescence caused by the political situation of the time, the in- terest in physical training has grown rapidly ever since ; and the field of school hygiene has been steadily ex- tended and developed by physicians, pedagogues, and architects.

Instead of making general remarks about schools and school instruction, men now devote them- selves to exact investigations and the study of special problems.

Parow, Fahrner, Hermann, Schildbach, Kunze, and Buchner introduced the school-desk re- form; and they have lately been joined by Schenk and Lorenz.

Von Pettenkoffer, Breiting, and Eitschel have tested the air in school-rooms. Attention has also been given to the personal hygiene of the pupils and the so-called school diseases.

In the study of eye defects, the examination of 10, school children by Hermann Cohn was epoch-making; and he has recently been followed by von Arlt, Schmidt Simpler, von Hippel, Pfliiger, and Stilling.

Bresgen and Eafemann have pointed out that when breathing through the nose is obstructed, weakness of memory and attention is pro- duced.

To prevent the curvature of the spine so often caused by writing, Schubert and W. Meyer have advocated the introduction of vertical script.

Gutzmann have suggested a new method of curing stuttering, and have attained note- worthy results in this line. There is no lack of comprehensive treatises on school hygiene.

Hygiene des Korpers nebst beilaufigen. Bemerkungen, , A Holder. Baginsky, Handbuch der Schul-Hygiene. Netolitzky, Handbuch der Schulhygiene.

Mit Abildungen im Text. Jena, , Gustav Fischer. Das Schulhaus und das Unterrichtswesen, vom hygien- ischen Standpunkte fiir Arzte, Lehrer, Verwaltungs- beamte und Architekten bearbeitet.

CHAPTER II The Light of the School-room Since we have undertaken to treat only of those facts ot school hygiene which the teacher himself can observe and to aome extent control, we refer the reader to the more complete works of Baginsky, Burgeratein-Ketolitzky, and Eulenberg-Baeh for a dis- cussion of buildings and sites.

In theae the necessary information can be obtained concerning the location and extent of the site and the different parts of the building, especially the foundation, facade, materials, stories, corridors, and roof.

In general, it should be the rule to have the sun shine freely into the room for several hours of the day, if possible when school is not in session.

Since Bunlesa rooms are generally damp and cold, people justly call them unliealthful. We know that on streets which run east and west, the rate of mortality is greater on the shady than on the sunny side.

Besides warming and ventilating, sunlight also disinfects. Pure cultures of most pathogenic bacteria do not grow in the sunlight but soon perish.

Sunny class-rooms are, therefore, to a certain degree, a hin- drance to the spread of infectious diseases through the school. A southeasterly direction of class-room windows is to be preferred.

This provides for the necessary light and warmth from the sun, does not expose the win- dow front to the generally prevailing west winds, and prevents the early and almost horizontal rays from falling into the room.

In this respect it has this special advantage over the pure easterly direction that the sun reaches the room later in the day and leaves it after a shorter time.

We believe that an easterly exposure is, next to the southeasterly, the most favorable, because here the sun shines into the room chiefly before instruction begins and not during the hottest part of the day.

To be sure, we hear the argument that in oar climate even at this time of the year the sky is often cloudy ; that the nearly perpendicular rays of the noon- day sun do not fall far into the room and are leas an- noying than the horizontal light of the morning and evening sun, and that the two hottest months aro mostly taken up by the summer vacation.

Xeverthe- lesB, as a matter of fact, the temperature in the eoutb- erly rooms rises very high in spite of all protective measures against the sun, since the southern wall and the layers of air next to it both become strongly heated.

It would be possible only with an easily regulated heating apparatus to keep the temperature of the room constant, with the win- dows now shaded and cool and now heated by the noon- day sun.

Zeitachrift fiir Schulgesundheitspflege, , No. Giinstigste Lage der Schnlzim- mer. We would not, however, advocate a westerly direction, because as stated above, it is the side exposed to the weather.

Wind and rain would often strike the win- dows, prevent their being opened in summer, and in large cities blow dust and smoke into the room.

A northerly exposure is admissible for drawing-rooms, and in fact to be recommended for this purpose, be- cause north rooms, not being open to the sun, need no blinds.

The light can therefore all be utilized; and it remains exceedingly uniform. If a northerly draw- ing-room is well heated and well ventilated, it is not likely to be injurious to health, notwithstanding the lack of sunlight, because pupils spend in it only a few hours per week.

The natural illumination of the school-room is closely connected with its orientation. For it is evi- dent that rooms facing the northeast, have more light in the morniug than those facing the southwest, while at noon the reverse is true ; and that rooms facing the south, other things being equal, receive more light than those facing the north.

SuflBcient daylight is of the greatest importance to the eyes, and therefore efforts have been made for a long time to ascertain in figures the amount of light in different parts of the school-room.

Seper- atabdruck aua Schillings Journal fuc Ga. In the case C, is a little deyice for regulating the flame, and a small scale at- tached to a mirror.

By looking through a slit oppo- site, the length of the flame, which is to be "2 cm. Along the full length of tube A is a millimeter scale.

In the middle of 5 is a reflection prism, one perpendicular plane of which is turned toward the middle axis of A, and the other toward the ocular h.

At the end of the tube B, opposite the ocular, is a square metal hot g to which a tube i can be attached to exclude light from the sides.

The Hght that goea to the ocular from here fills the left aide of the field of vision. On looking into the ocular one sees to the right only the light which comes from -4; and to the left, only that which enters through the box g.

If the two lights are equal in color and intensity the two parts of the field of vision merge into one with a Bcarcely noticeable line of divi- sion.

To enable the observer to give the light to be measared the same color aa the benzine-light, the ocular contains a slide with an aperture and a red and a green plate of glass, so that the photometer can at pleasure be set for white, red, or green, light.

A white slate, forming a part of the outfit, is fastened to a stand and placed in that part of the school-room where the light is to be measured. The intensity of the light thus measured is computed by means of a formula given by Weber.

The result gives the num- ber of " normal candles " which one would have to place at 1 m. In the accompanying illustration Fig. Zeitschrift fiir Instrumenten- inade, , Part 10, pp.

After the instrument has been placed on the spot to be tested and the lens turned toward the window, the base is made horizontal by the aid of three leveling screws and the plumb-line II E.

For this operation the plate P has to be moved so that the index m at- tached to it points to the zero mark on B.

The base is level when the plumb is directly over a given point in it. By shifting the lens L on the rod s an inverted image of the window sash, the roofs and steeples, as well as of that part of the sky visible at the place under investigation, is produced on a sheet of paper fastened with brass clasps on the plate P.

This paper is divided by lines into 3 mm squares. The reduced solid angle measures only the former, while under certain conditions the latter is predominant.

If the smaller types, which, hj the normal eye can be recognized in good light at a distance of 0. This will generally be true where no portion of the flky is visible.

These dark places are usually near the wall opposite the windows or directly adjacent to the wall spaces between them. Moreover, Huth has shown in a school in Berlin that at a distance of meters from the windows the light was rednced to a thirtieth of its original intensity ; and in cloudy weather it fell below that of one meter candle.

If the light supply is insufficient in a school-room, what can be done to remedy the matter? Sometimes we may leave dark places unused, or else exchange them for others that have more light.

If this is im- possible, we must paint dirty ceilings white, and dark walls either light gray or green; but in neither case should the color be dazzling.

Above all, light must be given free passage through the windows. These must be cleaned carefully, and kept free from paint; and the blinds must be raised as high as possible.

A still better plan would be to fasten the blinds above so that they could not obstruct any part of the window.

The removal of vines and especially of trees which shade the windows improves the light in a sehool-rooni very much. Light can also be thrown into a dark room by means of prisms and reflectors.

The day- light reflector by F. Hen- nig of Berlin, the use of which will be explained by the accompanying illustra- tion Fig.

The corrugation increases the surface of re- flection and secures a better distribution of the light. Diamond type was read 13, and Bourgeois 19 em.

In correspondence with this, it was found photometric- ally that the amount of light was nearly twice as great. If the necessary light cannot be secured even by the introduction of reflectors, there is nothing to do but to enlarge the windows.

This has often been done in the schools of Breslau. In Prussia, according to the Royal Technical Building Deputation, the window and floor Bpaces must have a ratio to each other of 1: In Saxony, Wiirtemberg, and Lower Austria a ratio of 1: In enlarging the windows, care should he taken to have the apertures made rectangular, since arched or Gothic styles lessen the window surface unnecessarily.

The top of the window ought to extend as nearly as possible to the ceiling ; and the lower part must be 1 to 1. Zeitschrift fiir Schulgesundheitspflege; , No.

Walls containing windows should be bevelled both on the inner and outer edges, eHpecially at the top outside. The panes must be as large and the sashea aa narrow as possible.

The illumination may, furthermore, be too strong as well as too weak. Direct sunlight ahould not fall on the eyea or work of the pnpils, aa it will irritate the retina.

To prevent this, school -windows should have means of protection either on the outside or on the inside. Outside awnings have this advantage, that they can be placed according to the position of the ann, and so do not unnecessarily diminish the light in the room.

Thoy also protect the children from the heat of the snn and permit the opening of the win- dows. They are, on the other hand, expensive; and do not last long, since they are exposed to the weather.

This holds trne, also, of blinds and shutters suspended outside from the top of the window frame and held away a certain distance at the bottom by iron rods.

When they are drawn np they darken the school-room more than the awninge do. Common curtains which roll up at the top have the disadvantage not onlj of being usually out of order, but also of letting in light at the sides.

If people, nevertheless, will have them, they must be put up so as to extend a little over the window frame. Better than these just mentioned are curtains that can be drawn up from the bottom by a crank or such as are fastened in pairs at the middle of the window and can be drawn one up one down.

With the latter, it ia possible to leave the upper parts of the windows, through which the brightest sky light enters, uncov- ered, as soon as the sun permits.

Cohn, Cber Fenstervorhiinge in Schulen. Sonderabdruck ana dor Deutschen medizinischen Wochenschrift, , No. Zeitschrift fiir Schulgesundheita- pflege, , No.

Venetian blinds, whose alata can be set horizontally, diagonally, or perpendiculariy, are not auitahle for school-rooms.

In addition to having the light sufficient and not too strong, it is important to see that it comes from the right direction.

The windows must, therefore, be in a wall lengthwise of the room and to the left of the pupils. If the windows are ia front, the light will fall directly into the pupils eyes and irritate the retina.

Another inconvenience from windows so located is described by Baginsky from his own experience. Still stronger shadows, caused by the whole upper part of the body, appear when the windows are located behind the pupils.

Coneeqiiently the light from 4 B left is the only proper light, and hence is most I commonly used in higher schools. There still remains the question, whether light might 1 not enter the school-room from the two aides.

They say that with light coming I in on both sides places between the windows and in J the corners of the room are better lighted. Im Auftrage dea Kaiserlichen Statthaltera eratattet, von einer mediziniachen Sachv6r-.

But the facts which they cite to substantiate their opinion, namely, that those school- rooms which had the least number of myopic children received abundant light both from the right and left, we can not admit as a demonstration, because myopia is due to many other causes besides deficient lighting.

Prench hygienists have, themselves, repeatedly called attention to the fact that forms are recognized with great difficulty when light comes from two sides, on account of the absence of shadows.

And lastly, with this arrangement the right and the left eyes are illum- inated differently, which may give rise to the develop- ment of defective refracting power.

Lighting from both right and left can, therefore, be sanctioned only if sufficient light can be had in no other way.

Windows both at the left and rear of the pupils should still more emphatically be prohibited except in cases of emergency.

If they are, neverthe- less, in use, the light from behind ought to be checked by dulled panes,]curtains, or similar devices. All other combinations of two-sided lighting are to be absolutely rejected.

This hap- pens most frequently in schools with two sessions in winter, when the first and last periods do not always have sufficient natural light.

But even at other seasons dense mists, fogs, clouds, etc. Boarding-schools must have it, at any rate. The electric light ranks first among the different kinds of artificial light.

It is white, and resembles daylight most closely leaving colors almost unchanged ; it does not contaminate the air; it involves almost no risk of fire; and it can be conveniently handled.

The flicker- ing, which is so disagreeable to the eye on account of the changes in intensity, has in consequence of recent technical progress wholly disappeared in the incan- descent, and almost wholly in the arc lamps.

Eulen- bergs Vierteljahrsschrift, , Vol. Such batteries are particularly serviceable in places like schools where a current is needed on the instant and for a short time only.

The arc light has, as is well known, great intensity and must be covered by ground glass globes, alabaster shades, or something similar. It might otherwise cause inflammation and swelling of the conjunctiva, and photophobia, with spasmodic contractions of the lids and narrowing of the pupils ; also, hemeralopia, and possibly amaurosis.

Pfliiger, Kurzsichtigkeit und Erziehung. Cohn, liber den Beleuchtungswert der Lam- penglocken. Schlenk describes the apparatus as follows: Un- der the lamp is a closed, nickel-plated aheet-iron re- flector having the form of a truncated cone 33 cm.

Most of the light from the arc is caught by this reflector and thrown on the white ceiling. Many rays also strike the latter directly, and atill more the upper parts of the walls which are like- wise kept bright.

From here they are reflected in all directions and light up the remotest comers of the room uniformly ; and what ia most important they pre- heitsamkeit in Moakau.

Zeitschrift fiir Schulgeaund- heitspflege, , No. Zeitschrift fiir Schulgesundhev , No. The source of light is in this way wholly concealed from the eyes of the pupils.

How bright and pleasant such a light can he I have myself been able to observe in a school in Ham- burg, where the rooms were illuminated not by one but by several arc lamps with reflectors.

Two reflectors with faces opposite are placed on the wall, so aa to make a certain angle with it. The larger reflector has the shape and size of a German studio window.

The focus is in the middle of the smaller reflector, which is made of a variety of transparent materials. Half of the light falls on the objects to he illuminated after a single reflection from the large reflector; the other half falls on the small reflector and ia partly trans- mitted, partly reflected to the larger.

To a person in the room the large reflector looks like a luminous body several square meters iu area with nearly uniform brightness, having only in the middle a somewhat brighter spot.

Zeitschrift fiir Sclinl- ffesnndheitBpBege, , No. The instrument is made either with one or with two are lamps, the latter having the advantage of producing a more nniform light.

The strong points ahont the side reflector are that it gives a diffused light, which is not dazzling, but variable at will, and more evenly distributed than daylight.

While the latter is a hundred times stronger at the windows than at a distance of ten meters from them ; the light from the reflector shows an intensity of Accordingly he constructed hia reflector as follows: An adjustable prismatic glass ring 6 if suspended from this top surrounds the arc, under which is the opal glass shield L.

The school-room receives in this way a well distributed diffused illumination; shadows are insignificant; and the dazzling arc is completely concealed.

The electric light is doubtless the light of the future ; but on account of its costliness most schools will have to be satisfied with a diSerent kind of illumination.

Gas light and kerosene lamps must claim our attention. The gas arc-light of Butzke of Berlin and the similar Wenham light also gives an illumination suitable for jschools.

Both contain regenerative burners with the flame downwards. With respect to the Auer incandescent gas-light, re- cent opinions differ.

And this with its far greater brilliancy is the real illuminating body. One advantage of the Auer burner is that only a small amount of gas is consumed in comparison with the amount of light produced.

Finally, the incandescent burner gives a light of superior brightness, whiteness, uniformity and steadiness ; and produces only a small amount of heat, not enough to cause overheating.

For these reasons it has been recommended by the Prussian cultus-minister for use in public institutions, universities, etc. Since its introduction, there has been a decrease in diseases of the respiratory organs, myopia, and cases of conjunctival catarrh.

According to a re- port by this body a gradual decrease of brightness can be observed in the Auer light. Its intensity and color, especially when the light is first introduced, irritate the retina; and the frequent explosions of the chim- neys endanger personal safety.

We can say with greater certainty that the Albocar- bon gaslight is not fit for school-rooms. It is true the flame does not flicker on account of the increase of the specihc gravitj of the.

Illumination by means of simple broad flame burners, — such as are often found, either with or without opal- escent glass globes, in halls for physical training, and in corridors, is also to be rejected for school-room use.

The flames flicker so much that, for this reason alone the light cannot be used for reading and writing; and, besides, they lack sufficient brightness.

Round burn- ers properly constructed are much to be preferred ; but they must be supplied -both with chimneys and with globes or shades. The chimneys answer a threefold purpose.

If they have a thickness of from 2 to 3 mm. The upward going rays should be reflected down up- on the pupils desks by globes and shades so as to in- crease the illumination,.

With regard to the use of kerosene lamps, the objec- tion is usually made that too much care is required to keep threm clean and in order; and that books and tablets are liable to be soiled by them because petrole- um vapors condense in the combustion on the cold reservoir.

There is no danger of poisoning connected with them, whereas gas escaping from leaky pipes con- tains, as is well known, the dangerous carbonic oxide.

They will not injure the respiratory organs, as impure illuminating gas will, which forms ammonia and sul- phuric acid during combustion. For a hundred candle power light, petroleum gives off grams of water, and gas ; and, what is still more important, petroleum under the same circumstances gives off liters, and gas liters of carbonic acid.

Renk, Uber die kunstliche Beleuchtung von Bdrsalen. Such a temperature will necessarily prove enervating for pupils and teachers alike.

Fur- thermore, hot flames cause a rapid evaporation of the moisture in the eye, and in this way bring about a feeling of dryness in this organ.

They also cause the face to become heated and red; and they produce headache, — all evils which are seldom found where petroleum light is used. Whether gas or petroleum lights be chosen, the illumination must in every case be so great, that at all places in the room diamond type can be read by a person with normal vision at a distance of 0.

This is equivalent to a light intensity of at least 10 meter candles. Especially strong illumi- nation is required for blackboards, charts, etc.

And, lastly, the lights must be at least 0. Riibner believes this due not only to the high temperature but to the drying of the skin and the more uneven distribution of light and shade than is customary with sunlight.

We are thus led to consider one of the most important topics in school hygiene. Everybody knows that atmospheric air is composed of oxygen, nitrogen, water, and carbonic acid; and that the proportion of these components, with the ex- ception of water, is subject to but very slight changes.

In all tests, where and whenever made, the per cent by volume has been as follows: Lately the so-called precious gases argon, helium, and krypton, which were formerly counted with nitro- gen, have been discovered, and found to be constant components of the air.

It is not, as was first supposed, an ele- ment, but consists of the real argon, a solid, metargon, and a volatile gas, neon. Outdoor air also has traces of ammonia, and nitrous and nitric acid.

The chief cause of this is excretions from the lungs and skin of teachers and pupils. To this must be added the carbonic acid excreted by the skin, although this is only a hundredth or at most an eightieth part of that excreted by the lungs.

The more the carbonic acid in a room increases, the less readily will it be given off from the blood of the per- sons in it.

K 67 no longer talie place between it and the air of the lungia. On account of this interference with the respiratory processes, anaemia and sometimes the first symptoms even of lung diseases set in after repeated exposures to air charged with carbonic acid.

It is often possible to see, especially in the case of young and delicate children, how a fresh, healthy appearance gradually disappears and gives place to a pale, anaemic color, — a condition traceable chiefly to the impure air of the schools.

The noxiousness of the air is due not only to the increase of carbonic acid, but far more to certain organic impurities given off, partly by the lungs and partly by the skin.

For, on condensing vapors from their own lungs or those of their students, they secured a fluid, which when filtered and injected under the skin of a rabbit produces the following phenomena: They furthermore injected some fresh fluid taken directly from the trachea of a dog into the anterior carotid artery of a rabbit.

Violent convul- sions followed, the activity of the heart and lungs ceased almost entirely, and death resulted in less than a minute.

Moreover, toxic products are contained not only in the exhalation of the lungs but also in the perspiration of the skin.

That the excreted organic substances which have a tendency to putrify are poisonous is shown by covering animals with varnish. Animals so covered die without exception, because they cannot get rid of the perspiratory products.

People properly speak of these cases as cases of self-poisoning, since every ex- cretion has a disagreeable, paralyzing, and toxic effect on its producer.

It is these decomposed organic materials which make the air of the school-room so offensive. It clings not only to the walls and furniture, but also to the cloth- ing of both teacher and pupils, so firmly, indeed, that jtcBnnot alwajB be removed by careful ventihition.

This is by no means due simply to mental fatigue; hut body and mind are so depressed by the aato-toxic products in the air that the ability to work is lessened.

Mental activity relaxes as a result of a bodily weariness, which has all the symptoms of pois- oning by auto-toxic products. In addition to these organic impurities from respira- tion and perspiration, the air in school-rooms contains also noxious organic dust particles.

These readily combine with oxygen, and cau therefore reduce a solution of potassium permanganate, thus depriving it of its red color.

Zeitschrift fiir Scbulgesandheits- pflege, , No. Parts 2 ajid 3. In such air there are generally many micro-organ- isms.

According to his observations one cbra. A pupil would, thus, in a five-hour session inhale 44, germs. It is interesting to note how the number of bacteria varied during the day.

In this gymnasium it was found that in two liters of air, which was allowed to flow through a glass tube lined with peptonized meat gelatine for an hour, there were 38 colonies of bacteria about 8 A.

Hesse, Uber quantitative Bestimmung der in der Luft enthaltenen Mikroorganismen. Mitteilungen aus dem Kaiserl. The number of micro-organisms is, furthermore, a considerable extent upon the character of the school building.

In institutions with artificial ventilation, Carnelley and Foggie found Kooms which were clean and new had 85, and those which were old and dirty, germa in the same quantity of air.

But the most striting result was that the number of bacteria has an unquestionable relation to the age of the pupils; the younger they are, the more the microbes.

This is probably due to the fact that young children are not aa cleanly as older ones. In connection with this Bobject one needs only make a comparison of the mountain and the sea air with that of the school-room.

On the high mountains of Switzerland Frendenreich often had to examine 2 to 3 cbm. It is the same with sea-air, which is also remarkably free from micro-organisms.

But even if the dust in the school-room were free from disease germs, it would, nevertheless, be injurious to the muGuous membrane of the bronchial tubes and the eyes for purely mechanical reasons.

In comparison with the tender, microscopic, epithelial layers of these membranes, even small dust particles are enormous bodies which are liable to injure them with their sharp edges and comers.

This is the cause of the many cases of catarrh of the bronchial tubes, throat, and larynx, found among those who teach in dusty quarters; and also of the many cases of conjunctival inflammation.

As such, it has been cnBtomary to use the quantity of carbonic acid contained in it. The organic excretions from the lungs and skin found in the air can not be used for this purpose, since analy- tical chemistry haa not yet, notwithstanding iCe great progreHB, been able to give them even a qualitative, much less quantitative determination.

Neither can the number of germs which may be found be used nn- conditionally as a test of the purity of the air. The distribution of these germs in the air is too accidental and irregular, and depends in any given case on too many circumstances which cannot easily be ascertained.

Carbonic acjd is, therefore, the only means of meas- urement left; and it has many special advantages for the purpose. In the first place, it distributes itself with extraordinary uniformity in closed rooms.

More- over, we know that the oxidizable organic substances and carbonic acid increase in the same ratio ; and, lastly, the quantitative determination of carbonic acid pre- sents no great difficulties, The method employed is generally that of Petten- kofler, A four to six liter flask is required, the capacity of which must bo determined exactly by weighing it first empty and then filled with water, and calculating its capacity from the difference of the two weights.

Glass stoppers cannot be recom- mended because they do not fit tightly enough ; and even cork and rubber would let carbon dioxide through.

Thus sealed, the fiask is taken into the school-room, where the air is to be tested, and opened ; air is now forced into it by means of bellows until its contents have changed at least five times.

The flask is then closed tightly; and after the fluid has been shaken repeatedly to bring it in contact with the enclosed air, it is left standing for half an hour.

At the end of this time all the car- bonic acid is absorbed and has separated as insoluble barium carbonate. Titration is begun by letting oxalic acid, 2.

The following example by Kirchner will serve as an illustration. In one case to produce a precipitation, The capacity of the flask was 5, ccm.

To find the amount of carbonic acid per thousand ccm. The principle of this is to intro- duce known quantities of the air to be tested into a given quantity of baryte solution till it becomes cloudy.

The more quickly this happens, the less car- bonic acid there is in the air — the more slowly, the more. The Smith-Lunge method requires a round bottle 3.

STKR Two tubes pass through holes in the stopper. In this rubber tube there is at f a longitudinal slit 1 cm. If the tube a b is pressed together with one hand, and the rubber bulb k with the other, the air in the latter will escape through the slit f.

The bulb now expands through its own elasticity and fills with air drawn through the bottle by means of the tube ac , which is now left open.

After the test bottle has thus been filled several times with the air to be examined, 7 ccm. The bottle is now care- fully closed and shaken several times.

The amount of air which thus comes in contact with the baryte solution is equal to two fillings of the bulb. With every compression and expansion the bulb draws through the bottle 28 ccm.

A piece of paper having a cross marked with a lead pencil is pasted on the side of the bottle to make it possible to judge more correctly of the increasing cloudiness.

The question now is, how many times did the hulb have to be compressed? The figures, thus obtained give, of course, only approximate values because the determina- tion of the momement when the cross disappears de- pends too much upon individual opinion.

The automatic air- tester of A. Wolpert of Niirnberg is still simpler but also less accurate. A glance at the scale of the apparatus is sufficient to show one whether the air in the class-room is "extremely bad", "very bad ", " bad ", " still permissible ", or " pure ".

The amount of carbonic acid is ascertained by means of a colored liquid upon which the carbonic acid has a bleaching effect. This liquid, which consists of a solution of soda colored red with phenolphthalin, is poured into a vessel placed on a bracket and is then protected from the air by a thin layer of mineral oil.

It then drops automatically from a capillary tube at-- tached to a float in the fluid upon a specially prepared white linen thread about 0. This red color extends uniformly down the whole length of the thread when the air is very pure, i.

If the air is impure the carbonic acid has a bleaching effect in proportion to amount of it present. The more carbonic acid there is in the air, the more of the thread will appear white from below upward.

In reading the scale we take the liighest point at which the thread is still white, i. Whatever method may be employed, a considerable amount of carbonic acid will very often be found in the air of a school-room.

During one school hour a boy of sixteen produces These figures, it is true, are not constant, since the production of carbonic acid depends on varying condi- tions.

Besides the temperature of the air, the time of day, and the state of nutrition, we mnat here especially take into account the frequency and depth of respira- tion.

It has been observed that the amount of car- bonic acid increased especially during the period for gymnastics and music. A thirteen year old boy, for instance, exliales There is still another class of circumstances which affect the quantity of carbonic acid in school-rooms.

In the first place, it mates a difference whether ventila- tion takes place by an artificial system or only through the pores of the walls or the cracks of the windows and doors.

Rietschel, Mitteilung iiber die Ergebnisse der Untersuchungen der Luft in verschiedenen hohern Berliner Lerbanstalten. According to hia report, 8exta B of the Friederich Wilhelm gymnasium of that city has an air, capacity of It is heated by means of a tile stove and is without atiy artificial means of ventilation.

Doors and wiudowB remained closed during recesses as well as during the recitation periods. Consequently a maximum amount of carbonic acid of 9.

Sexta B of the Wilhelm gymnasium, with a capacity of chm. During recesses all doors are open. Here the maximum amount of carbonic acid was only 4.

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